Beechler, B. R., Jolles, A. E., Budischak, S. A., Corstjens, P. L.A. M., Ezenwa, V. O., Smith, M., Spaan, R., van Dam, G. J., Steinauer, M. 2018. Host immunity, nutrition and coinfection alter longitudinal infection patterns of schistosomes in a free ranging African buffalo population. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006122





Thompson LR, Sanders JG, McDonald D, Amir A, Ladau J, Locey KJ, Prill RJ, Tripathi A, Gibbons SM, Ackermann G, Navas-Molina JA, Janssen S, Kopylova E, Vázquez-Baeza Y, González A, Morton JT, Mirarab S, Zech Xu Z, Jiang L, Haroon MF, Kanbar J, Zhu Q, Jin Song S, Kosciolek T, Bokulich NA, Lefler J, Brislawn CJ, Humphrey G, Owens SM, Hampton-Marcell J, Berg-Lyons D, McKenzie V, Fierer N, Fuhrman JA, Clauset A, Stevens RL, Shade A, Pollard KS, Goodwin KD, Jansson JK, Gilbert JA, Knight R, The Earth Microbiome Project Consortium (including lab members, V. Ezenwa and A. Williams). 2017. A communal catalogue reveals Earth’s multiscale microbial diversity. Nature, 551: 457. PDF


Budischak, S.A., O’Neal, D., Jolles, A. E., and Ezenwa, V. O. 2017. Differential host responses to parasitism shape divergent fitness costs of infection. Functional Ecology: 1-10. PDF


Spaan, J., Pitts, N. Buss, P., Beechler, B.R., Ezenwa, V.O., Jolles, A. E. 2017. Non-invasive measures of stress response in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) reveals an age-dependent stress response to immobilization. Journal of Mammology, 98: 1288-1300. PDF


Williams, A. E., Worsley-Tonks, K. L., Ezenwa, V. O. 2017.Drivers and consequences of variation in individual social connectivity. Animal Behaviour, 133: 1-9. PDF


Stephens, P.R., Pappalardo, P., Huang, S., Byers, J.E., Farrell, M.J., Gehman, A., Ghai, R.R., Haas, S.E., Han, B., Park, A., Schmidt, J.P., Altizer, S., Ezenwa, V.O., Nunn, C.L. 2017. Global Mammal Parasite Database version 2.0. Ecology, 98: 1476. PDF


Rajeev, M., M. Mutinda, Ezenwa, V. O. 2017. Pathogen exposure in cattle at the livestock-wildlife interface. EcoHealth, 14: 542-551. PDF


Austin, L.V., Budischak, S.A., Ramadhin, J., Hoberg, E.P., Abrams, A., Jolles, A.E., Ezenwa, V.O. 2017. A comparison of two methods for quantifying parasitic nematode fecundity. Parasitology Research, 116: 1597-1602. PDF


Hosseini, P. R., Mills, J. N., Prieur-Richard, A., Ezenwa, V. O., Bailly, X., Rizzoli, A., Suzán, G., Vittecoq, M., García-Peña, G. E., Daszak, P., Guégan, J-F., Roche, B. 2017. Does the impact of biodiversity differ between emerging and endemic pathogens? The need to separate the concepts of hazard and risk. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of B, 372: 20160129. PDF





Ezenwa, V. O., Ghai, R.R., McKay, A.F., Williams, A.E. 2016. Group living and pathogen infection revisited. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 12: 66-72. PDF


McKay, A.F., Ezenwa, V. O., Altizer, S. 2016. Consequences of food restriction for immune defense, parasite infection, and fitness in monarch butterflies. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 89: 389-401. PDF


Ezenwa, V. O. 2016. Helminth-microparasite co-infection in wildlife: lessons from ruminants, rodents, and rabbits. Parasite Immunology, 38: 527-534. PDF


Ghai, R. R., M. Mutinda, Ezenwa, V. O. 2016. Limited sharing of tick-borne hemoparasites between sympatric wild and domestic ungulates. Veterinary Parasitology, 226: 167-173. PDF


McKay, A. F, Ezenwa, V. O., and Altizer, S.  2016. Unravelling the costs of flight for immune defenses in the migratory monarch butterfly.  Integrative and Comparative Biology, 56: 278-289. PDF


Stephens PR, Altizer S, Smith KF, Aguirre AA, Brown JH, Budischak SA, Byers JE, Davies JT, Drake JM, Ezenwa VO, Farrell MJ, Gittleman JL, Han BA, Huang S, Hutchinson RA, Johnson P, Nunn CL, Onstad D, Park AW, Vazquez-Prokopec GM, Schmidt JP, Poulin R. 2016. The macroecology of infectious diseases: a new perspective on global-scale drivers of pathogen distributions and impacts. Ecology Letters, 19: 1159-1171. PDF


Budischak, S.A., Hoberg, E., Abrams, A., Jolles, A. E., and Ezenwa, V. O. 2016. Experimental insight into the process of parasite community assembly. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85: 1222-1233. PDF


Ezenwa, V. O. and Snider, M. H. 2016. Reciprocal relationships between behavior and parasites suggest that negative feedback may drive flexibility in male reproductive behavior. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 283: 20160423. PDF


Henrichs, B., Oosthuizen, M., Troskie, M., Gorsich, E., Gondhalekar, C., Beechler, B., Ezenwa, V. O., Jolles, A. 2016. Within guild co-infections influence parasite community membership: a longitudinal study in African Buffalo. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85:1025-1034. PDF


Ezenwa, V.O., Archie, E. A., Craft, M. E., Hawley, D. M., Martin, L. B., Moore, J., White, L. 2016. Host behavior-parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behavior and disease ecology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 283: 20153078. PDF


Gawriluk, T.R., Thompson, K. L., Clare-Salzler, Z., Kimani, J.M., Kiama, S.G., Smith, J., Ezenwa, V.O., and Seifert, A.W. 2016. Comparative analysis of earhole closure identifies regenerative ability as a discrete trait in mammals. Nature Communications, doi: 10.1038/ncomms11164. PDF


VanderWaal, K. L., and Ezenwa, V.O. 2016. Heterogeneity in pathogen transmission: mechanisms and methodology. Functional Ecology, doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12645. PDF





Young, H. S., Dirzo, R., Helgen, K.M., McCauley, D.J., Nunn, C. L., Snyder, P.,Veblen, K. E., Zhao, S., Ezenwa, V. O. 2015. Large wildlife removal drives immune defence increases in rodents.  Functional Ecology, 30: 799-807. PDF


Worsley-Tonks, K. and Ezenwa, V. O. 2015. Anthelmintic treatment affects behavioural time allocation in a free-ranging ungulate. Animal Behavior, 108: 47-54. PDF


Ezenwa, V. O., Prieur-Richard, A., Roche, B., Bailly, X., Becquart, P., García-Peña, G. E., Hosseini, P. R., Keesing, F., Rizzoli, A., Suzán, G., Vignuzzi, M., Vittecoq, M., Mills, J. N., Guégan, J-F. 2015. Interdisciplinarity and Infectious Diseases: An Ebola Case Study. PLoS Pathogens 11: e100499. PDF


Hooge, J., Howe, L., and Ezenwa, V. O. 2015. Identification of novel Theileria genotypes from Grant's gazelle. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 4: 239-243. PDF


Snyder, P.W., Hogg, J. T., Ezenwa, V.O. 2015. Comparison of the FLOTAC and Baermann techniques for quantifying lungworm larvae in wild bighorn sheep feces, Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 51: 843-848. PDF


Beechler, B. R., Manore, C., Reninghaus, B., O’Neal, D., Gorsich, E., Ezenwa, V.O., Jolles, A.E. 2015. Enemies and Turncoats: bovine tuberculosis exposes pathogenic potential of Rift Valley fever virus in a common host African Buffalo. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 282. PDF


Gorsich, E. E., Ezenwa, V. O., Cross, P. C., Bengis, R. G., and Jolles, A. E. 2015. Context-dependent survival, fecundity, and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo. Journal of Animal Ecology, 84: 999-1009. PDF


Budischak, S.A., K. Sakamoto, L. Megow, K. Cumming, J. Urban, Ezenwa, V.O. 2015. Resource limitation alters the consequences of co-infection for both hosts and parasites. International Journal for Parasitology, 45: 455-463. PDF


Budischak, S.A., Eric Hoberg, Art Abrams, A.E. Jolles, and Ezenwa, V.O. 2015. A combined parasitological molecular approach for non-invasive characterization of parasite communities in wild hosts. Molecular Ecology Resources, 15: 1112-1119. PDF


Ezenwa, V.O. and Jolles, A.E. 2015. Opposite effects of anthelmintic treatment on microbial infection at individual vs. population scales. Science, 347: 175-177 (Faculty 1000 Recommended). PDF


Worsley-Tonks, K., Lance, S., Beasley, R., Jones, K., Ezenwa, V. O. 2015. Development and characterization of 30 novel microsatellite markers for Grant’s gazelle (Nanger granti). Conservation Genetics Resources, 7: 219-221. PDF


Lane-deGraaf, K., Amish, S., Gardipee, F., Jolles, A., Luikart, G., Ezenwa, V. O. 2015. Signatures of natural and unnatural selection: evidence from an immune system gene in African buffalo. Conservation Genetics, 16: 289-300. PDF


Jolles, A. E., and Ezenwa, V. O.  2015. Ungulates as model systems for the study of disease processes in natural populations. Journal of Mammalogy, 96: 4-15. PDF


Gorsich, E.E., Bengis, R.G., Ezenwa, V.O., Jolles, A.E.  2015. Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for diagnosing brucellosis in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 51: 9-18. PDF


Beechler, B.R., Bengis, R., Swanepoel, R., Paweska, J.T., Kemp, A., Jansen van Vuren, P., Joubert, J., Ezenwa, V.O., Jolles, A.E. 2015. Rift Valley Fever in Kruger National Park: Do Buffalo Play a Role in the Inter-Epidemic Circulation of Virus? Transboundary and Emerging Disease, 62: 24-32. PDF





Ezenwa, V. O. and A. E. Williams. 2014. Microbes and animal olfactory communication: where do we go from here? BioEssays, 36: 847-854. PDF


Gorsich, E. E., Ezenwa, V. O., Jolles, A. E. 2014. Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife , 3: 124-134. PDF


Nunn, C.L., Brezine, C., Jolles, A. E., Ezenwa, V. O. 2014. Interactions between micro- and macro-parasites predict microparasite species richness across primates. American Naturalist, 183(4): 494-505. PDF


Fratto, M. E., Ezenwa, V. O., Davis, A. K. 2014. Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum buffers the effects of acute stress on innate immunity in house finches. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 87(2): 257-264. PDF





Beechler, B.R., Bengis, R., Swanepoel, R., Paweska, J.T., Kemp, A., Jansen van Vuren, P., Joubert, J., Ezenwa, V.O., Jolles, A.E. 2013. Rift Valley Fever in Kruger National Park: Do Buffalo Play a Role in the Inter-Epidemic Circulation of Virus? Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. PDF


Godsey, M.S., King, R.J., Burkhalter, K., Delorey, M., Colton, L., Charnetzky, D., Sutherland, G., Ezenwa, V.O., Wilson, L.A., Coffey, M., Milheim, L., Taylor, V. G., Palmisano, C., Wesson, D., Guptill, S. C. 2013. Ecology of potential vectors of West Nile virus in southeastern Louisiana: enzootic transmission in the relative absence of Culex quinquefasciatus. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 88(5): 986-996. PDF


Anderson, K., Ezenwa, V. O., Jolles, A. E. 2013. Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 2: 1-9. PDF





Budischak, S.A., Jolles, A. E., Ezenwa, V. O. 2012. Direct and indirect costs of co-infection in the wild: Linking gastrointestinal parasite communities, host hematology, and immune function. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 1: 2-12. PDF


Ezenwa, V.O., Gerardo, N. M., Inouye, D. W., Medina, M., Xavier, J. B. 2012. Animal behavior and the microbiome. Science, 338: 198-199. PDF


Beechler, B. R., Broughton, H., Bell, A., Ezenwa, V. O., Jolles, A. E. 2012. Innate Immunity in Free-Ranging African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer): Associations with Parasite Infection and White Blood Cell Counts. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 85(3):255-64. PDF


Ogada, D. L., Torchin, M. E., Kinnaird, M. K., Ezenwa, V. O. 2012. Effects of Vulture Declines on Facultative Scavengers and Potential Implications for Mammalian Disease Transmission. Conservation Biology, 26, 453–460. PDF


Ezenwa, V. O., Ekernas, L. S., Creel, S. 2012. Unraveling complex associations between testosterone and parasite infection in the wild. Functional Ecology, 26: 123-133. PDF


Nelson, B., Hebblewhite, M., Ezenwa, V .O., Shury, T., Merrill, E. H., Paquet, P.C., Schmiegelow, F., Seip, D., Skinner, G., and Webb, N. 2012. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and distemper virus in wolves in the Canadian rocky mountains. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 48: 68-76. PDF





Ezenwa, V.O. and Jolles, A. E. 2011. From host immunity to pathogen invasion: The effects of helminth coinfection on the dynamics of microparasites? Integrative and Comparative Biology, 540-551. PDF


Hawley, D. M., Etienne, R. S., Ezenwa, V, O., Jolles, A. E. 2011. Does animal behavior underlie covariation between host exposure and susceptibility to infection? implications for disease dynamics. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 51: 528-539. PDF


Nunn, C. L., Ezenwa, V. O., Arnold, C., and Koenig, W.D. 2011. Mutualism or parasitism? Using a phylogenetic approach to characterize the oxpecker-ungulate interaction. Evolution, 65: 1297-1304. PDF


Archie, E. A. and Ezenwa, V. O. 2011. Population genetic structure and history of a generalist parasite infecting multiple sympatric host species. International Journal for Parasitology, 41: 89-98. PDF





Ezenwa, V. O., Etienne, R. S., Luikart, G., Beja-Pereira, A. and Jolles, A. E. 2010. Hidden consequences of living in a wormy world: nematode-induced immune suppression facilitates TB invasion in African buffalo. American Naturalist, 176: 613-624. PDF


Ezenwa, V. O., Hines, A. M., Archie, E. A., Hoberg, E. P., Asmundsson, I. M., and J. T. Hogg. 2010. Muellerius capillaris dominates the lungworm community of bighorn sheep at the National Bison Range, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 46: 988-993. PDF





Pongsiri, M. J., Roman, J, Ezenwa, V. O., Goldberg, T. L., Koren, H., Newbold, S., Ostfeld, R.S., Pattanayak, S., and Salked, D. J. 2009. Biodiversity loss and the new global disease ecology, Bioscience, 59: 945-954. PDF


Archie, E. A., Luikart, G., and Ezenwa, V. O. 2009. Infecting epidemiology with genetics: a new frontier in disease ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24: 21-30. PDF


Beechler, B. R., Jolles, A. E. and Ezenwa, V. O. 2009. Evaluation of hematological values in free ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 45: 57-66. PDF


Ezenwa, V. O., Jolles, A. E. and M. O’Brien. 2009. A reliable body condition scoring technique for estimating condition in African buffalo. African Journal of Ecology, 47: 476-481. PDF





Ezenwa, V. O. and A. E. Jolles. 2008. Horns honestly advertise parasite infection in male and female African buffalo, Animal Behaviour, 75:2013-2021. PDF


Jolles, A. E., Ezenwa, V. O., Etienne, R., Turner, W. and H. Olff. 2008. Interactions between macroparasites and microparasites drive patterns of infection in free-ranging African buffalo. Ecology, 89:2239-2250. PDF


Luikart, G., Pilgrim, K., Visty, J., Ezenwa, V. O., and M. K. Schwartz. 2008. Candidate gene microsatellite variation is associated with parasitism in wild bighorn sheep. Biology Letters, 4: 228-231. PDF


Hoberg, E. P., Abrams, A. and Ezenwa, V. O. 2008. An exploration of diversity among the Ostertagiinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) in ungulates from sub-saharan Africa with a proposal for a new genus. Journal of Parasitology, 94: 230-251. PDF


Deem, S. L., Ezenwa, V.O., Ward, J. R and B. O. Wilcox. 2008. Research frontiers in infectious disease ecology: an interdisciplinary agenda for a changing world. In Infectious Disease Ecology: Effects of Disease on Ecosystems and Ecosystems on Disease. Princeton University Press, Eds. R. Ostfeld, F. Keesing & V. Eviner.



2007 & earlier


Hines, A. M., Ezenwa, V. O., Cross, P. and J. D. Rogerson. 2007. Effects of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in elk: preliminary observations. Veterinary Parasitology, 148: 350-355. PDF


Ezenwa, V.O., Milheim, L.E., Coffey, M.F., Godsey, M.S., King, R.J. and S.C. Guptill. 2007. Land cover variation and West Nile virus prevalence: patterns, processes and implications for disease control. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 7: 173-180. PDF


Ezenwa, V. O., Price S. A., Altizer, S., Vitone, N. D. and K. C. Cook. 2006. Host traits and parasite species richness in even and odd-toed mammals (Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla). Oikos, 115: 526-536. PDF


Ezenwa, V.O., Godsey, M.S., King, R.J. and S.C. Guptill. 2006. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 273: 109-117. PDF


Ezenwa, V.O. 2004. Interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasite infection in wild bovids. International Journal for Parasitology, 34: 535-542. PDF


Ezenwa, V.O. 2004. Host social behavior and parasitic infection: a multifactorial approach. Behavioral Ecology, 15: 446-454. PDF


Ezenwa, V.O. 2004. Reserve characteristics predict parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves. Biological Conservation, 118: 397-401. PDF


Ezenwa, V.O. 2004. Selective defecation and selective foraging: antiparasite behavior in wild ungulates? Ethology, 110: 851-862. PDF


Ezenwa, V.O. 2003. Habitat overlap and gastrointestinal parasitism in sympatric African bovids. Parasitology, 126: 379-388. PDF


Altizer, S., Nunn, C.L., Thrall, P.H., Gittleman, J.L., Antonovics, J., Cunnningham, A.A., Dobson, A.P., Ezenwa, V.O., Jones, K.E., Pedersen, A.B., Poss, M. and J.R.C. Pulliam. 2003. Social organization and parasite risk in mammals: integrating theory and empirical studies. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution & Systematics, 34: 517-545. PDF


Ezenwa, V.O. 2003. The effects of time of day on the prevalence of coccidian oocysts in antelope fecal samples. African Journal of Ecology, 41: 192-193. PDF


Ezenwa, V.O., Peters, J.M., Zhu, Y., Arevalo, E.A., Hastings, M.D., Seppa, P.,Zacchi, F. Queller, D.C., and J.E. Strassmann.1998. Ancient conservation of trinucleotide microsatellite loci in polistine wasps. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 10: 168-177. PDF


Ezenwa, V.O., Henshaw, M.,Queller, D.C., and J.E. Strassmann.1998. Patterns of buzz running, a preswarming behavior in the neotropical wasp, Parachartergus colobopterus. Insectes Sociaux 45: 445-456. PDF